What is domain
Internet domain is an identificator used in computer networks for human friendly identification. Typical domain names such as google.com contain top level domain (com) and second level domain (google). Every level of domain is separated by dot. Together they create unique human friendly identifier.
If you live in cave in stone age there are samples of domain names:
What is ip address
On the other hand, IP Address is unique identificator of device in network. Every device connected to internet or even in private networks must have IP Address. Typical ip address can look like this
As you can see, this numbers separated by dot are pretty hard to remember, and that's why we use domain names in internet.
How domain name resolution works
When you type for example "flaketools.com" to your browser some magic happens. This magic is called domain name resolution.
Domain name resolution process is pretty complex, but to keep things simple let's say that your computer "contacts" your router asking for IP Address of server which domain is "flaketools.com". If your router don't know this answer the router "contacts" router of your internet provider. And this goes on and on till your answer is recieved. The very last server that can respond to your domain name resolution is a root DNS server.
When answer is found it will be sent back to your computer, and your computer will know where to go for visiting "flaketools.com".
Domain to IP without this site
On computers and laptops such as Windows or macOS the process is very simple, find a app called terminal, console or cmd and open it. On mobile phones there is terminal as well, but many times it's hard to get into it, but if you have luck the black weird window will open. In this window you can type command named ping followed by domain name which you want to visit. The command:
ping google.comOnce you hit enter something like this appears:
PING google.com (188.8.131.52): 56 data bytesIn this case IP Address for domain google.com is 184.108.40.206.